Make money from online shopsThis is the space for you and your group members to work on your chapter, Information Literacy and Technology Tools | - | Supplemental materials. Ask questions, point out issues, write and edit text that can be placed in the wikibook.

How to get started with this wiki, click on the "edit this page" button and begin typing. Do not forget to save your work. You can type here in this textbox. As you look at the page you will notice a discussion tab and a history tab at the top of the page. You can use the discussion tab to talk to each other about the information that has been posted and the history tab to see the history of edits and editions made to your page. The history tab is also the place you want to go if something was accidentally deleted from your page. When you click on the "edit this page" button you will also see at the bottom of the text box, a place for you to type helpful information to your group members about changes or editions you made to the p age entitled, “optional: comment for page history. Every time you go to your page to make a comment or additon type a brief summary in that box. This will make it easier when you look at the history page to determine what is new on the page.

Post all ideas here on this page, so we can all make changes and refine our ideas before we add our final additions to the Wiki Book Chapter for next week : ) It may also help to stay updated by turning on the notifications when changes are added or people post new discussion topics and replies. On the top of this page is a tab called "Notify Me." Enable the settings you would like and then notifications will be sent directly to your email whenever something changes. It might make this a little easier.

Information Literacy and Technology Tools – Free Open Source Software

Free Open Source Software (F/OSS) are applications where the user can download the entire program free of charge. In general, the definition provides for your freedom to use, modify and redistribute the software in any way you wish. There are no licensing fees to pay, and any costs associated with open source software typically are for staff training or specialized support from a third-party company for implementation assistance (Hirsch, 2009, para.6).

F/OSS has become a new movement in recent years. Imagine replacing Microsoft Windows, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office, or Blackboard with free alternatives to this proprietary software. This is entirely possible in today’s Web 2.0 world with F/OSS. Supporters of F/OSS believe that, “the source code for programs should be available for anyone else to study, use, enhance, and distribute” (Solomon & Schrum, 2007, p. 50). Many countries outside of the United States are already using F/OSS and have already been using it for years as an alternative to expensive proprietary software (Hirsch, 2009, para. 5). F/OSS should be considered in educational settings for its customization, immediacy, cost effectiveness, and unlimited possibilities for students and teachers.

The Price
F/OSS is free to a certain extent, but schools can control the costs associated with it. The cost of traditionally distributed software is static and determined by someone else, who puts a price tag on the manuals, marketing, support, programmers, dividends and shareholders (Pfaffman, 2007, p.39). However, with F/OSS the school can determine who and how much to pay. Usually a school will need to use an already existing IT staff or hire a third party for implementation assistance; however, this cost is minimal to the normal licensing fees a school must pay per desktop computer (Hirsch, para.6). It is estimated that a school district can save about $60,000 to $200,000 or more a year by switching to F/OSS alternatives (Derringer, 2009, para. 9). Another possibility could be for a school to partner with a university where IT students help implement and edit F/OSS for the schools. “By the time they graduate, the students are professionals” at using and implementing F/OSS (Derringer, para. 23). This would give the IT students real-world hands on practice working with F/OSS while also cutting costs for local school districts.

Another advantage to F/OSS is the customization and immediacy it allows users. Users can work closely with the programmers in their schools to add new features to programs specific to that particular school’s needs. Because people can always add to the source code, bugs are usually fixed within a couple of hours and updates are released immediately (Pfaffman, p.39). There are also many sites that have general hosting where thousands of programmers fix bugs in the code all the time (Pfaffman, p.39). Several have thriving development communities with a large body of contributors and a motivated group offering ideas, along with comprehensive documentation providing a clear path for implementation (Hirsch, para.9). F/OSS has become much easier to implement within schools over the past couple of years to provide for more customization and ease of use.

Possibilities of F/OSS for Teachers and Students
There are several possibilities for schools and students once they begin using F/OSS in place of or in addition to proprietary software. There are many schools leading the way with F/OSS and are teaching students not only how to use F/OSS programs, but also how to write their own F/OSS programs (Derringer, para.16). For students in Michigan City, Indiana they have already instated a full program using F/OSS and it is extremely streamlined. The principal claims getting software is as easy as “withdrawing money from an ATM machine” (Derringer, para. 18). The students visit a central command center and select one or more open-source applications from a touch screen, insert a CD, and burn the software onto the disk to install on their computers (Derringer, para. 16). The best part of the whole system is that because it is F/OSS, there are no copyright infringements or licensing problems when students install the same programs that they use at school onto their home computers. With F/OSS it allows students who are disadvantaged or living in poverty the option of having software applications available to them at home. Maybe even with the money saved on licensing by schools they can issue laptops for students, so every student can have a computer at home too. Also allowing students to gain a variety of experiences with various interfaces is important in today’s Web 2.0 world.

For teachers there are many possibilities of using F/OSS as a way to get additional instructional resources. There is an open source literacy program called Free-Reading, that was adopted by the state of Florida for use in its schools (O’Hanlon, 2008, p.26). Bobbi Kurhsan, created where educators can contribute, edit, or download content based on their particular classroom needs (O’Hanlon, p.24). Educators are able to use content that aligns to state standards, rather than receiving pre-packaged programs from a national generic source (O’Hanlon, p. 26). F/OSS allows localizing content to a specific school system’s needs. Imagine the possibilities of software developed for education, with educators, and by educators.

The Future: Once Free Always Free
Once something is licensed as F/OSS it will always be completely free to the user. Even if the host site falls, the source code is still open and available. Schools can always hire someone or work in partnership with an organization to upgrade, maintain or migrate the software for continued use (Pfaffman, p.40). It will be hard to change attitudes at first for people to consider using F/OSS, because it is the norm in most schools, business, and homes to use proprietary software. However, there are now alternative F/OSS applications that are near equal to or better than their proprietary counterparts (Pfaffman, p.43). Schools should consider using F/OSS because of the many options that it allows users. Simply imagine the possibilities of software developed for education, with educators, and by educators.

Example of Sites that Offer F/OSS Alternatives (I want to add some more links to this.)
Commercial Example
Mozilla Fire Fox
Internet Explorer, Netscape
Various Google Apps
Google Maps, Google Docs, Google Sketch
Various Applications
Microsoft Office Suite
Adobe Audition, Sony Sound Forge
Kid Pix

Additional Resources
A guide to the World of Open Source for K-12 Educators -
Advancing K-12 Technology Leadership -
Open Source Initiative -

Works Cited:
Derringer, P. (2009, April). When Free Isn’t Free. Technology & Learning 29(9), 28-32.
Retrieved September 18, 2009, from Wilson Education Database.

Hirsch, J. (2009, May). Opening Up Options for School Software. School Administrator, 66(5),

7-7. Retrieved September 18, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.

O'Hanlon, C. (2008, May). Content, Anyone?. T H E Journal, 35(5), 24-26. Retrieved September
18, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.

Pfaffman, J. (2007, May). It’s Time to Consider Open Source Software. TechTrends: Linking
Research & Practice to Improve Learning, pp. 38,43. Retrieved September 18, 2009, doi:10.1007/s11528-007-0040-x

Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: New tools, new schools. Washington D.C.:
International Society for Technology in Education.

Photo Sharing

Photo Sharing is the publishing of a users digital photos to online storage spaces with the ability to tag and organize each photo. Thus allowing the user to share his or her photos with others, who can review the images, make comments or even edit your photo. Photo sharing is not limited to the web or personal computers but can also be shared with cell phones. Users can take photos with their cell phone and then transfer the photo to a photo sharing site. Instead of sending photos via email, to numerous people, which could be time consuming, people can post their photos to a photo sharing site and invite others to view their photo albums or slide shows.

Possibilities for Teachers and Students

Photo sharing is a great way for teachers to add depth and higher thinking to content rich lessons. Students can use photo sharing to enhance projects, collaborate with other students, and document their learning even after the event is over. Since photos are tagged they are easily searchable, students can then combine, collaborate, and edit photos into sideshow presentations or slidecasts.

Photos can be embedded into your school or class web pages.
Inspire writing and creativity in the classroom.
Use images to create storybooks.
Use photos to create presentations and slide shows.
Photo tags can be used to find photo of events around the world for use in the classroom.
Photos can be used to enhance students classwork or for media literacy projects.
Create digital portfolios, where students and instructors can comment on the photos or projects.
Create a photoblog.

Photo Sharing Resources

Flickr: Photo sharing web site.
Photobucket: Photo sharing web site.
Slide: Offers a simple sequential way to create slide shows and then post them to web sites, and blogs.
Bookr: Enables users to create and share their own captioned slide shows.
One True Media: Provides an easy way to create slide shows with added text, music and images.
Show Beyond: Allows users to create and share multimedia stories as slide casts, imcorporating images, sound and text.

Works Cited

Rosenfeld, Ester. (April 2008). Useful Web 2.0 Tools for Teachers and Students. Teacher Librarian, 35 no.4.

What is Photo Sharing? Retrieved October 7, 2009 from

Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: New tools, new schools. Washington D.C.:
International Society for Technology in Education.

Socializing is becoming more and more important in the digital age. Being able to communicate in real time at anytime makes socializing easier and more effective. Twitter, the idea which came from Jack Dorsey, makes these interactions possible. Individuals are able to post comments in 140 words or less. These short interactions enable people to communicate quickly and at anytime. Using Twitter as an educational tool extends the classroom beyond the classroom by allowing students to communicate with each other and the instructor at anytime and in any place.

The article Tweeting the Night Away: Using Twitter to Enhance Social Presence lists several typical experiences of students and teachers using Twitter:

A student is reading something in the textbook and has
a question about the chapter on multimodal learning.
She immediately tweets (i.e., posts) her question to the
Twitter community, and gets three responses within ten
minutes)-two responses from classmates, and one
from Joni (her professor). This leads to several
subsequent posts, including comments from two
practicing professionals.”

“A student is working on an assignment and is
wondering about embedding music into a slideshow
presentation. He tweets a question to the group and gets
a response from Patrick (his professor) and a practicing
professional. Both point the student to different online
resources that explain how to embed music and provide
examples to deconstruct. Within a half hour, the student
has embedded music in his slideshow presentation.”

“A student finds a great video about storyboarding on
YouTube and posts the URL to Twitter. Her find is
retweeted (i.e., reposted) three times because others also
think the video is great and worth sharing.”

Twitter offers many benefits to the education experiences. It creates a place where information can be communicated timely. If students have a question or concern, they can tweet their question and receive responses very quickly. The simplicity of Twitter makes it appealing. Students and teachers can communicate easily in an informal way. Twitter, by connecting a broad variety of people, provides students with a wider range of resources and helps strengthen their social skills.


Dunlap, J. C., et. al., Tweeting the Night Away: Using Twitter to Enhance Social Presence. Journal of Information Systems Educationv. 20 no. 2 (Summer 2009)p. 129-35

Skype is a web based software application that enables people to make voice calls over the Internet. Skype can be downloaded for free from the website, and all calls made to other Skype users are free as well. In addition to making phone calls though the internet users can transfer files, instant message, and video conference.
Skype was written by the developers of Kazaa, a group of Estonia-based developers named Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu and Jaan Tallinn. Skype headquarters is located in Luxembourg, and has offices all over the world, including: London, Tallinn, Tartu, Stockholm, Prague, and San Jose, California.

EBay bought Skype in September 2005 for $2.6 billion. In 2009 Skype recorded revenues of $170 million. A group of investors led by Silver Lake, that includes Index Ventures, Andreessen Horowitz and the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) Investment Board, purchased Skype in late 2009 for $1.9 billion. They now own 65% of Skype.

At the end of June in 2009 Skype had 480.5 million registered users, up 42 percent from 2008. It is estimated that only 82 million are active users. In 2009 the number of free Skype-to-Skype minutes rose 72 and the number of paid SkypeOut minutes rose 57 percent.

When To Use It
Skype can be used to connect people all over the world for any number of reasons. The video conferencing functionality is utilized by many companies, as it saves a tremendous amount of money that would otherwise be spent on traveling. Soldiers overseas use Skype to stay in contact with their families, and more and more teachers are using Skype as a tool in the classroom.
-will add more to

Skype and Education
Implementing new technologies in schools can be very expensive. Not only is their the price of equipment and software involved, but the maintenance and support add up to large sums also. Skype is a free, web based software, making it ideal for school budgets. Many teacher run blogs on the interent outline different way to utilize Skype in the classroom. Below is a link that highlights 50 awesome ways for teachers to use Skype.

50 Awesome Ways to Use Skype in the Classroom | Teaching (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2009, from

Poulus, T. (2009, September 3). Ebay gets good price for Skype, plus chance at more later - Telecompaper. Retrieved October 11, 2009, from

Skype - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2009, from

Skype – Make free calls and great value calls on the internet. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2009, from

eBay to sell Skype... Deal puts Skype value at $2.75 Billion | eBay Ink. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2009, from